Tag Archive for: Fertility Clinic Srinagar

All You Need to Know About Preimplantation Genetic Testing

While trying to get pregnant can be a happy experience, it can also be difficult for some couples. Consider preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) if you’re considering in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a therapy option for infertility. With the use of this cutting-edge method, it is possible to screen embryos for genetic defects before implantation, which may improve your chances of becoming pregnant and giving birth to a healthy child.

Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) finds genetic variations in embryos produced through in vitro fertilization or IVF procedures. Before embryos are inserted into the uterus, PGT is carried out. Reducing the likelihood of transferring an embryo with a particular genetic disorder or specific chromosomal abnormalities is the aim of paired-parent technology (PGT).

Understanding Preimplantation Genetic Testing

PGT is a collection of sophisticated genomic tests carried out on IVF-created embryos. These tests look for chromosomal abnormalities or single-gene problems by analyzing the genetic composition of the embryos. This knowledge can be very beneficial for couples that have:

  • A history of recurrent miscarriages
  • Irregularities of the chromosome
  • Genetic diseases they want to avoid passing on to their children

There are three types of genetic testing of an embryo before transfer:

1. PGT-A:

Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy, or PGT-A, is a screening method used to detect chromosomal abnormalities in embryos, which are assumed to be the most frequent cause of IVF treatment failure. As an illustration, the most prevalent chromosomal condition that we are aware of that has an extra copy of chromosome 21 is Down syndrome. It is typically advised for older women over 35 who are trying to conceive. 

2. PGT-M:

When one or both genetic parents have known genetic abnormalities, preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic/single gene disorder (PGT-M) refers particularly to the process of testing an embryo to see if it too possesses the genetic problem. The PGT-M process offers an alternative to current post-conception diagnostic procedures, which often include the tough option of terminating the pregnancy if the results are unfavourable because only unaffected embryos are sent to the uterus for implantation. Right now, PGT-M is the only way to prevent having a kid impacted by a genetic condition before implantation.

3. PGT-SR:

It is a test used to distinguish between embryos that have additional or missing genetic material due to translocation or rearrangement (unbalanced) and embryos that have the proper amount of genetic material (balanced/normal). PGT-SR increases the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy following an IVF cycle and decreases the risk of a miscarriage, failed implantation, or having a kid with a chromosomal issue.

At Imprimis IVF, We can accurately identify balanced and normal embryos. This makes it possible to transfer embryos without chromosomal rearrangement carriers, avoiding the rearrangement’s transmission to subsequent generations. Schedule your appointment now!

The Preimplantation Genetic Testing Procedure

PGT begins with traditional in vitro fertilization (IVF), which involves retrieving and fertilizing eggs in a laboratory setting. The embryos are cultured until they reach a stage known as a blastocyst, which typically occurs on the fifth or sixth day following egg collection. At this point of development, certain cells are destroyed.

The genetic material (DNA) from the biopsied cells is then tested to see if the faulty gene exists in each embryo. After the cell biopsy, blastocysts are stored until the test results are ready. Once normal embryos have been discovered, they can be safely delivered to the uterus. Excess intact embryos are frozen for later use, whereas defective embryos are discarded. It is one of the most complex but also crucial infertility procedures.

Fertility doctors perform these procedures for two main reasons. One is to assess whether embryos have genetic abnormalities, which frequently cause failed implantation and miscarriage leading to unsuccessful IVF. The second goal is to identify embryos with genetic flaws that could result in a child with a fatal genetic abnormality or inheritable disorders like muscular dystrophy.

Embryos with such faults are not allowed to be put into the mother’s womb for a pregnancy. According to research, genetic mistakes in embryos are a major cause of both failed pregnancy and live birth. Couples interested in PGT testing should consult with an expert fertilization specialist to discuss available options.

The Cost of Preimplantation Genetic Testing

If you are considering using a fertility clinic, the majority of them can give you an idea of how much IVF pricing is decided for the PGT procedure. Some may provide PGT as part of a “package,” but make sure to examine the services provided by each reproductive clinic to make sure there aren’t any additional costs. Request a cost worksheet that details every stage of the PGT process from early pregnancy monitoring to pre-cycle services because calculating the cost of in vitro fertilization is crucial if you are on a budget.

Many factors vary from patient to patient when estimating the cost of having a child via PGT. In vitro fertilization is a must for all PGT patients to retrieve embryos for biopsy. Transferring an embryo or embryos that are not impacted by the known hereditary genetic disease for which it is at risk, is the aim of PGT.

The following are some variables that may affect PGT and IVF costs:

  • The required number of IVF cycles
  • Count of embryos to be tested and biopsied
  • Pattern of inheritance for the genetic illness
  • Technology required
  • The specific IVF clinic

Frequently Asked Questions about PGT

Q: What are the different types of PGT?

A: There are three types of PGT:

  • PGT-A: Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy
  • PGT-M-Preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disorders
  • PGT-SR-Preimplantation genetic testing for structural rearrangements
Q. Who can benefit from PGT?

A: PGT can help couples with-

  • A history of repeated miscarriages
  • Chromosome abnormalities
  • A family history of a certain genetic illness that they want to avoid passing on to their babies.
  • Women over the age of 35
Q: Does PGT ensure a successful pregnancy?

A: Normal PGT results do not guarantee a successful pregnancy or avoid miscarriage, This is a very common misconception. Embryos with normal PGT results of any type can still fail to implant or result in a miscarriage

Q: What is the average cost of IVF and PGT procedures?

A: The average cost of an IVF cycle in India ranges from ₹2.5 lakhs to ₹4 lakhs. The cost may vary depending on additional drugs, procedures (such as ICSI), and the type of clinic.

PGT testing typically costs between ₹25,000 and ₹50,000 per embryo. The number of embryos tested will affect the total cost.

Why Choose Imprimis IVF 

Imprimis IVF is a renowned IVF Centre in Srinagar that specializes in helping couples fulfil their dream of becoming parents. We provide a broad range of fertility services, including modern therapies such as IUI, IVF, ICSI, and more.

Imprimis IVF recognizes that cost can be a major concern for couples considering reproductive treatment. We attempt to provide fair pricing and various payment choices for PGT as well as IVF packages, We try to keep IVF treatment charges as economical as possible. Please contact our staff to get a personalized price on PGT and IVF.

Schedule your appointment and get a consultation from the best IVF doctor available at our facility!

Hyperspermia: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Hyperspermia is a rare disease that affects male fertility. According to a study, about 4% of men have experienced this disease. More than half of the world’s population does not know about Hyperspermia, but it exists. However, no real or actual scientific research has been stated on this.

Hyperspermia can affect adult men of any age. It is important to note that although this condition can cause concern, Hyperspermia is not usually associated with serious health problems. but, it is important to consult a doctor to rule out any medical conditions or complications.

Hyperspermia is not a fatal or deadly condition, but it can still reduce the chances of pregnancy. It is important to get information on this topic so that all risks, such as infertility, can be avoided in the future. This article will help you learn more about male reproductive health.

What is Hyperspermia?

This condition is the opposite of Hypospermia, where a man produces less sperm than normal.

Hyperspermia is a condition in which a man produces more sperm than usual. Semen is the liquid that a man ejaculates during orgasm. It contains sperm and fluid from the prostate gland. Get yourselves expert treatment at fertility clinics.

The average volume of semen ejaculated ranges between 2 to 6 ml. If the semen quantity of a man goes beyond 6.3 ml, then he is said to be affected by Hyperspermia.

Symptoms of Hyperspermia

Symptoms of Hyperspermia

Hyperspermia is a condition in which a man produces more sperm than normal. It is produced by Seminal fluid which is a fluid that contains sperm that helps in reproduction. The prostate glands of the testicles produce this sperm. During Hyperspermia, a larger-than-normal amount of sperm is produced. This condition may not cause health problems but may affect fertility.

The main symptom of Hyperspermia is more sperm than usual. A man who has had Hyperspermia all his life may not realize that his sperm volume is high. Others may notice an increase in sperm volume, which may be a sign to see a doctor for a diagnosis. However, many people with this condition have no other symptoms and may never know they have it.

Some common signs of Hyperspermia may include:-

  •  Painful ejaculation
  • Anxiety about sexual performance
  • Dizziness after sex
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Pressure in the pelvic area
  • Semen yellow or cloudy
  • Enlarged and swollen testicles

What are the Causes of Hyperspermia?

Doctors don’t know exactly what causes Hyperspermia. Some researchers suggest that it is related to an infection of the prostate that causes inflammation.

Some cases cause the problem of Hyperspermia and affect fertility. Men have a lot of sperm and have less sperm than normal in their ejaculation. Thus, this leads to diluting the material, negatively affecting male fertility. However, a low sperm count does not mean that a man is infertile. A person with this condition still has a chance to have a baby. They can still look forward to parenthood because the condition does not affect fertility if the sperm count is high.

Another main reason is the gap during intercourse because it causes the problem of sperm accumulation. If you use a sexual stimulant or the pill, this is again a major cause of Hyperspermia. Regular use of the pill improves sperm yield and levels. According to professionals, it is believed that when the prostate gland is inflamed, it can also cause this unusual condition in men.

When Should You Consult a Specialist?

See your doctor if you are concerned that you are producing too much sperm or if you have been trying to get your partner pregnant for at least a year without success and get your condition diagnosed. Your doctor will start with a physical exam. You will then have infertility tests to check your sperm count and other fertility measures.

Hyperspermia Tests

These Tests may include:

1. Sperm Analysis

You take a sperm sample for testing. This can be done either by masturbating into the cup or by pulling the cup out during sex and ejaculating inside. The sample goes to the laboratory, where a technician checks the sperm counter quantity, movement, and quality.

2. Hormone Tests

A blood test can determine whether you produce enough testosterone and other male hormones. Low testosterone can also cause infertility.

3. Ultrasound Tests

You may have an ultrasound of the testicles or other parts of the reproductive system to look for problems that may contribute to infertility.

Does Hyperspermia Require Treatment?

Hyperspermia is a condition that usually does not require treatment until it causes serious health problems related to conception. However, precaution is important, so it is recommended to refrain from using pills or drugs to increase sexual performance. If ejaculation causes problems, it is always wise to consult a urologist.

You do not need to treat Hyperspermia. Pregnancy only takes one sperm and one egg, why is a sperm count important? In short, it increases the chances of a successful pregnancy. When a man ejaculates over a woman, the chance that one sperm will reach and implant itself in the egg increases if there is more sperm in the semen. Normal semen contains 300 million sperm per mm.

However, if you’re facing symptoms that are affecting your normal functioning, you must consult a professional. Our expert faculty at Imprimis IVF are there to guide you at every step.

Do You Want to Know More? Get in Touch with Imprimis IVF Fertility Clinic

The success of achieving pregnancy with a low sperm count depends on the personal health of you and your partner. If you decide to start a family, there are many options available to you, such as adoption, IVF, or lifestyle changes to try to conceive. Your first step is to talk to a doctor who can help evaluate your sperm count and other factors related to fertility before making any plans for the future.

Located in the heart of Srinagar, Imprimis IVF & Fertility Centre is a hope amidst the challenges of Hyperspermia and infertility. With a dedicated team of fertility experts and cutting-edge technology, we offer personalized care and transformative fertility solutions. As one of the best IVF centres in Srinagar, our commitment to excellence is reflected in every aspect of our practice.

At Imprimis IVF Fertility Clinic, we understand the importance of your dream of starting a family. So, our experienced fertility specialists will work closely with you to develop a customized treatment plan tailored according to your unique needs.

We are committed to supporting you every step of the way, from diagnosis to treatment and beyond, so you can realize your dream of starting a family. Contact Imprimis IVF & Fertility Centre Srinagar today and let us light the way to parenthood together.

Everything You Need to Know about Testicular Atrophy

Welcome to Imprimis IVF Srinagar. Our guiding principle is to maximize results and minimize costs. In this article, we shed light on a major problem that affects male fertility – testicular atrophy. We explore its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and available treatment options to ensure you have the information you need to make informed decisions about your reproductive health.

Our precise and comprehensive approach makes treatment for infertile couples easier and less stressful. Let’s dive right into this informative and engaging discussion!

Male Reproductive System

The male reproductive system is complex and contains organs and hormones important to a man’s well-being. On the other hand, abnormalities such as testicular atrophy, where the testicles shrink, can seriously affect both general health and fertility. Testicular atrophy is a condition in which a man’s testicles shrink. The testicles are part of the male reproductive system. They are located in the scrotum, whose main task is to regulate the temperature of the testicles.

Temperature regulation is important because the testicles produce sperm, which need a certain temperature to stay healthy and live longer. When the environment cools, the scrotum contracts; when the surrounding area becomes warmer than optimal, the scrotum relaxes and expands. This causes differences in the size of your testicles – which is completely normal. However, it is a condition in which the testicles shrink more than the temperature-regulating function of the scrotum.

Understanding Testicular Atrophy:

Testicular atrophy is a narrowing or shrinking of the testicles, not the scrotum. This can be caused by injury, underlying conditions, or exposure. Testicular atrophy can seriously affect male fertility, but with the right medical intervention and support, it need not be a barrier to parenthood. By understanding the causes, identifying the symptoms, and seeking timely treatment, you can take proactive steps to overcome testicular atrophy and achieve your dream of having a family. Our fertility specialist provides you with personalized statistics based on your circumstances.

Symptoms of Testicular Atrophy:

Symptoms of Testicular Atrophy

If you are a male who has not yet reached puberty, your symptoms will be different than in older men. You may experience:

  • Lack of facial and pubic hair
  • If the penis is larger than normal

It is best to see a doctor if you experience these symptoms.

If you are an older man who has already gone through puberty, your symptoms will be different than younger men. You may experience some or all of the following:

  • Decreased sexual desire
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Slow or no pubic hair growth
  • Soft testicles
  • Infertility

Whether you find you have it or not; If you have any of the symptoms listed above, consult your doctor for an accurate diagnosis. Now we will understand what causes testicular atrophy.

Causes of Testicular Atrophy:

Causes of Testicular Atrophy

There are several factors which can cause testicular atrophy, including:

1. Hormonal imbalance:

Fluctuations in hormone levels like decreased testosterone production in the body can contribute to testicular atrophy.

2. Varicocele:

In this problem, the veins in the scrotum get dilated and swollen which causes reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the testicles.

3. Infections:

Certain infections for instance mumps or sexually transmitted infections can also become a major reason for testicular inflammation and subsequent atrophy.

4. Trauma:

Injury or trauma to the testicles during sports events or accidents may cause damage to the testicles and can trigger atrophy.

5. Medications and Treatments:

Several medications like chemotherapy and radiation therapy can affect your testicular health and may cause atrophy.

It is important to note that these are not the only causes of testicular atrophy. For an accurate diagnosis and treatment, it is important to consult a qualified doctor. so choosing the right infertility centre is essential!

Diagnosis of Testicular Atrophy:

If you think that you may have testicular atrophy, it is very important to see a doctor to get the correct diagnosis. So what can you expect from a doctor’s visit? Doctors usually begin the diagnosis of testicular atrophy by asking questions about a person’s lifestyle and medical history. They ask about the medications the person is taking. Your doctor will also likely perform a physical examination of your testicles for size, shape, texture, and strength as well.

Finally, the doctor may order additional tests to determine the cause of testicular atrophy. Possible tests include:

  • Testicular ultrasound to look for abnormalities and circulation
  • Blood test to look for signs of infection
  • Swan or urine test to check for sexually transmitted infections
  • Hormone level tests
  • Sperm analysis to assess sperm quality
  • Testicular ultrasound to visualize testicular structure

These tools and methods are used to detect testicular atrophy. Now let’s have a look at the available treatment options.

Treatment Options for Testicular Atrophy:

Treatment of Testicular Atrophy

If a person finds out that they suffer from testicular atrophy early and receives treatment as soon as possible, the shrinkage and damage can be reversed. Some conditions, such as testicular torsion, require immediate treatment to prevent permanent damage to the testicles.

The underlying cause of testicular dystrophy determines the type of treatment. Treatment and early diagnosis can help reverse narrowing.

Several treatments are available:

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy: This treatment helps reduce the effects of hormonal imbalance on testicular atrophy and helps restore testicular function to normal levels.
  • Antibiotics and Antiviral Drugs: Some drugs can fight invaders and prevent damage caused by infections. Many patients feel relieved after taking antibiotics as they prevent the risk of surgery.
  • Surgery: Surgical treatment might be important in some cases as it can improve circulation and possibly reverse a varicocele or testicular torsion atrophy.
  • Lifestyle Changes: Minimising the consumption of alcohol, managing stress levels and controlling weight gain can play a crucial role in helping to improve testicular health.

If you want to treat this issue, get in touch with Imprimis IVF Srinagar, our experienced doctors will guide you through the process in full detail.

Imprimis IVF: Helping You Overcome Fertility Problems 

Testicular atrophy is an extremely serious problem for male fertility. But a diagnosis doesn’t have to be the end of your child’s planning journey. Imprimis IVF, a top IVF fertility centre, offers advanced analysis, personalized treatment plans, and comprehensive procedures such as IVF and ICSI to help you achieve your dream of becoming the parents that you want to be.

Located in the heart of Srinagar, Imprimis IVF Fertility Clinic is a ray of hope amidst the challenges of testicular atrophy and infertility. We offer personalized care and transformative fertility solutions. As one of the best IVF centres in Srinagar, our commitment to excellence is reflected in every aspect of our practice. At Imprimis IVF & Fertility Centre, we understand the importance of your dream of starting a family. Our experienced fertility specialists work closely with you to develop a customized treatment plan that is tailored to your needs.

We are here to support you every step of the way, from diagnosis to treatment and beyond, so you can dream about starting your family.

Solving these issues can be quite difficult, but don’t worry. Our team of experienced professionals, counsellors, doctors, and staff at our best infertility centre will make sure you feel comfortable throughout the procedure. You can visit here to study the proper guidelines for the procedure.

Freezing of Eggs, Embryos, and Sperms: All You Need to Know About Cryopreservation!

The ability to freeze embryos has emerged as a powerful tool. This process, known as cryopreservation, offers individuals and couples a chance to defy the traditional biological clock, allowing them to preserve their fertility for a future pregnancy. The chance to delay parenthood is a relatively new phenomenon.

Medical advances such as cryopreservation, freezing and storing gametes and embryos for later use, allow individuals and couples to control their family planning schedules. This article introduces the world of cryopreservation and explores its applications, benefits, and considerations.

Why is Cryopreservation an Emerging Trend?

Cryopreservation is no longer a futuristic concept but an established medical practice. Infertility centres in and around the world are interested in freezing eggs, sperm, and embryos.

Social factors such as higher education, career aspirations, or simply a desire to find the right partner lead people to preserve their fertility for a future pregnancy. The decision to freeze eggs, sperm, or embryos is quite, personal.

As a process, cryopreservation is an expensive process & medical insurance may not cover fertility treatments, so you must consider your goals & discuss them thoroughly with your partner, before making this decision.

Why Should You Opt for Cryopreservation?

Why Should You Opt for Cryopreservation

You must be wondering, why cryopreservation has been an emerging trend suddenly & why is everyone talking about it. Let’s dive into some reasons:

1. Body Clock

As we age, our fertility naturally declines. Think of eggs and sperm as superheroes because they’re the strongest when they’re young. Cryopreservation allows you to freeze eggs and sperm at their peak, giving you a better chance of getting pregnant later.

2. Medical struggles:

Cancer treatment can be hard on the body, including our reproductive system. Cryopreservation offers hope because it allows you to freeze whole eggs or sperm before treatment so you can have a family after recovery.

3. Finding Your True Self

Gender reassignment can affect fertility. Cryopreservation allows transgender people to preserve their ability to have children before hormone therapy or surgery.

4. Waiting for the right time

Maybe you’re busy building your career or haven’t found the perfect partner yet. Cryopreservation gives singles and couples the flexibility to freeze eggs, sperm, or even embryos so they can start a family when they are ready.

Does Freezing Damage Embryos?

A persistent question often arises: Does freezing harm embryos? The answer is that, like many things in science, it is not a simple yes or no.

Cryopreservation is a time- and temperature-sensitive process, and while the technology has continued to advance, there are inherent risks. Freezing can damage embryos, and thawing them later can also damage them. If multiple embryos are frozen, some or all may not survive the process, so choosing the right infertility centre is essential!

What is the Process of Cryopreservation?

Process of Cryopreservation

Imagine taking a break from planning your baby! This is what cold storage does. Here’s a simplified version:

1. Freezing Eggs

Think of it like putting eggs on ice. Doctors will give you medicine to make your ovaries produce more eggs. They then remove the eggs quickly and easily. Before storing them in a very cold freezer with a special antifreeze, they make sure they won’t be damaged by freezing.

2. Freezing sperm

It’s pretty simple. You provide a sperm sample and the clinic adds a special “antifreeze” to protect it. It then goes into the same ultra-cold freezer as the eggs.

3. Embryo freezing

It’s like putting in a little miracle. Doctors fertilize eggs with sperm in the laboratory and create embryos. These early embryos receive the same antifreeze treatment and super cryopreservation as eggs and sperm.

How Long Can Embryos Be Stored?

Imagine putting your family planning on hold for ten years! You can do this by freezing embryos. Most clinics recommend keeping them in the freezer during this time to give you flexibility. But here’s the great part: ten years is not a deadline. If you need more time, you can extend the storage.

If you want to preserve your eggs, sperm, or embryos, get in touch with Imprimis IVF Srinagar, our experienced doctors will guide you through the process in detail.

What can be Done in the Case of Separation from the Partner?

Embryos are created from sperm and egg. Therefore, sperm and egg providers must agree separately on the conditions of storage of embryos. Both the female as well as male partners (unless donor eggs or sperm are used) must complete a special consent form expressing their wishes regarding the use of the stored material.

Embryos can only be used if both male and female partners agree to the intended use. It’s also important to agree on what you want to do with the embryos if one of you faces mortality.

Going through these problems might be quite overwhelming, but don’t worry. The experienced team of professionals, counsellors, doctors, and staff at our infertility center will make you feel at ease. You can visit here to study the proper guidelines for the procedure.

Understanding the Risks & Benefits of Cryopreservation

Cryopreservation is like all medical procedures, It has its own considerations. Although freezing and thawing techniques have become increasingly successful, there is always the possibility that cells or embryos won’t survive the process. Also, cold storage and high costs could also be a major factor. However, the benefits often outweigh the risks.

Cryopreservation offers an opportunity to preserve fertility and give individuals and couples more control over their family planning decisions and choosing the right infertility centre is crucial. Pregnancy success rates with frozen eggs, sperm, and embryos continue to improve which makes it a viable option for many people.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is cryopreservation right for me?

A consultation with a fertility specialist at the Fertility Center is essential. You can also contact us at 7678556881 and we can assess your individual situation and discuss whether cryopreservation is compatible with your family planning goals or not.

2. What is the success rate of Cryopreservation?

Success rates depend on factors such as the age of freezing and the reason for cold storage. Your fertility specialist at Imprimis IVF can provide you with personalized statistics based on your circumstances.

3. What happens to unused frozen eggs, sperm, or embryos?

You always have the option to donate them to research or help another couple struggling with infertility.


Cryopreservation is a powerful technique that empowers individuals and couples to make informed choices about their reproductive future. By understanding the process, and its pros and cons, you can make decisions that align with your personal vision of parenting. We at, Imprimis IVF Srinagar, are dedicated to delivering exceptional results at our infertility centre and keeping the candle of hope burning for many people.

What are Uterine Polyps? What are the Treatments Available?

What are Uterine Polyps?

Uterine polyps are small tumours that form on the lining of the uterus, the place where a fertilized egg implants during pregnancy. Although they are usually harmless, they can cause discomfort and sometimes affect fertility. Uterine polyps occur when endometrial tissue grows excessively. Polyps are attached to the endometrium by thin stalks or broad bases that extend into the uterus.

Polyps are round or oval and range in size from a few millimetres (the size of a sesame seed) to several centimetres (the size of a golf ball) or more. You may have one or more polyps. Uterine polyps are usually not cancerous, but they can cause problems with menstruation, periods, or childbirth. This article explains everything you need to know about uterine polyps, including causes, symptoms, and treatment options. This is especially useful for women who are concerned about their reproductive health.

What Causes Uterine Polyps?

Doctors are not exactly sure what causes uterine polyps, but a few things may play an essential role. One is hormonal imbalance, especially excess estrogenNormally, estrogen helps the endometrium grow each month. Progesterone, another hormone, balances things out by preventing excessive growth of the lining. If there is not enough estrogen or progesterone, the lining can overgrow and form polyps.

Uterine polyps are sometimes asymptomatic, meaning they don’t cause symptoms. For this reason, many people with uterine polyps may never receive a diagnosis. Research does suggest that polyps are more common in certain populations. For instance, they’re more common in people who’ve gone through menopause than those who haven’t.

Certain diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), can also increase the risk of polyps. Other factors include ageing, being overweight, and using certain medications, such as tamoxifen, which is used to treat breast cancer.

What are the Symptoms of Uterine Polyps?

Uterine Polyps Symptoms

Uterine polyps don’t always cause problems, but some women experience symptoms that need attention. If you have any of these, it’s important to see a doctor to get a proper diagnosis.

Abnormal bleeding may be a sign of uterine polyps — especially if you’re postmenopausal. It can be alarming to have unusual bleeding, but most causes of bleeding like polyps are unrelated to uterine cancer. Early detection and treatment can help avoid complications, especially if you’re trying to get pregnant.

Let’s understand all the symptoms in detail:

1. Unusual bleeding

This is the most common symptom. You might have periods that last longer than usual and are heavier or bleeding between periods. Most periods last four to seven days. Normal menstrual cycles usually occur every 28 days but can range from 21 days to 35 days. Many people with uterine polyps have irregular periods.

2. Trouble getting pregnant

Polyps can make it harder for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus lining.

3. Pelvic pain

Some women experience pain or discomfort in their lower abdomen, especially during their period or sex. This can be concerning and may lead to anxiety and uncertainty about the underlying cause.

4. Bleeding after menopause

If you’ve gone through menopause or stopped having periods and experienced any bleeding, it’s important to see a doctor right away.

How are Uterine Polyps Diagnosed?

Diagnosis of Uterine Polyps

Your fertility centre will review your medical history and ask about your symptoms. They may ask if you’ve ever had trouble getting pregnant. They might also run some pregnancy tests, including a pelvic exam. Additional tests and procedures may be needed to determine if the tumour is a polyp.

Doctors usually use several different methods to diagnose uterine polyps, including:

  • Review of your medical history: They will ask about your symptoms, illnesses, and medications you are taking.
  • Physical exam: This may include the pelvic area. where your doctor checks your uterus for possible abnormalities
  • Hysterosonography: During Hysterosonography, a care provider uses a thin, flexible tube (catheter) to inject salt water (saline) into the hollow part of the uterus. An ultrasound probe gets images of the inside of the uterus to check for anything unusual.
  • Imaging tests: A transvaginal ultrasound uses sound waves to create a picture of your uterus and ovaries.
  • Hysteroscopy: It is a procedure in which a thin, lighted tube is inserted into the uterus to see the lining directly.

Treatment of Uterine Polyps Options Available

Uterine Polyps treatment

The best home treatment for polyps depends on several factors, including their size, location, and whether they have symptoms. Your desire to have children is also important, so choosing an experienced fertility expert is crucial.

Here are some treatment options that can be beneficial-

1. Observation

For small, asymptomatic polyps, doctors may recommend waiting and watching them, especially in women who are menopausal or have no major problems.

2. Medications

Hormonal medications, such as progestins, can help shrink them. or prevent polyps from growing, often the preferred approach before surgery.

3. Uterine polypectomy

Your provider will likely be able to remove the polyp during a hysteroscopy. A hysteroscope allows your provider to insert tools that can be used to cut and remove polyps. The advantage of the hysteroscope is its accuracy. Your provider can see the polyp and remove it at the same time. They may then send the tissue to a lab to check for signs of cancer.

If the polyp is cancerous, you may need additional surgery. A hysterectomy, or surgery that involves removing the uterus, may be necessary in cases where the polyps contain cancer cells.

4. Surgery

If polyps are large or cause symptoms, surgery may be necessary. Procedures such as dilation and curettage (D and C) can remove polyps while preserving fertility. Choosing a qualified surgeon and a reputable fertility centre is crucial for such procedures.

Imprimis IVF Fertility Centre: Your Partner in Overcoming Challenges

Uterine polyps can affect fertility, but with early detection and proper treatment, you can overcome these obstacles and achieve. Healthy Pregnancy If you are experiencing infertility or symptoms of uterine polyps, Imprimis IVF Fertility Centre can provide care and effective solutions tailored to your unique situation.

We understand the emotional challenges of infertility and are committed to providing compassionate care and personalized treatment plans. helps you achieve your dream of parenthood.

Our experienced fertility specialists can diagnose and treat a wide range of reproductive health problems, including uterine polyps. With advanced diagnostic tools and multiple treatment options, we can create a plan that meets your specific needs and increases your chances of success.

Whether you are experiencing infertility, recurrent miscarriages, or other reproductive health issues, we are here to support youevery step of the way. You don’t have to walk this journey alone. Let Imprimis IVF fertility centre help you realize your dream of starting a family. Contact us today to schedule a consultation and take the first step toward a brighter future.

Signs and Symptoms of High Estrogen in Females – Causes & Treatment

Maintaining a proper balance of estrogen and other sex hormones is crucial for overall health. In females, high estrogen levels may result in weight gain, low mood, and severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS). While estrogen is primarily known as a female sex hormone, it’s also present in males, though in smaller amounts. Although estrogen levels naturally fluctuate, consistently high levels can lead to health issues, with effects varying between males and females. But in this article, we will focus only on high estrogen in females. 

Keep reading to discover more about the symptoms and causes of high estrogen levels in females.

What is the Meaning of High Estrogen?

Estrogen plays an important role in the human body by regulating key functions like the reproductive system. This hormone’s levels change throughout a person’s life, frequently coordinating with other important chemicals in the body. As a young person goes through puberty, estrogen rises significantly to spur sexual maturation. Working with progesterone, estrogen prepares the body so that it is ready for potential pregnancy later on. Its fluctuations signal important developmental stages from childhood to adulthood. While its levels and impacts vary over time, estrogen remains vital for overall health and well-being at every stage of life.

While a proper balance of hormones is necessary for overall health and well-being, too much or too little of certain hormones can potentially lead to difficulties. Specifically, when estrogen levels are higher than normal for an extended period, it can negatively impact reproductive processes within the body, bring about unpleasant sensations, and elevate the likelihood of developing select health problems. Further exploration into maintaining hormonal equilibrium is advised to avoid potential issues.

What are the Causes of High Estrogen?

Cause of High Estrogen in Females


There are a few ways that high estrogen levels can arise in the body. Sometimes, estrogen amounts increase naturally as part of the regular hormonal cycles. However, elevated estrogen may also develop due to certain prescription drugs or underlying medical problems. Some potential causes of high estrogen include:

  • Changes in hormones during menopause or the menstrual cycle can cause estrogen levels to fluctuate. The monthly cycle, in particular, experiences surges and drops in various hormones as an egg is selected and developed each month.
  • Some medications can raise estrogen in the body. It’s important to be aware of any drugs’ effects on hormone balance.
  • Certain underlying medical conditions may contribute to high estrogen. Pregnancy, obesity, ovarian or adrenal tumours, and liver disease from cirrhosis can all impact hormone production and removal from the bloodstream.
  • Aspects of one’s lifestyle and habits could play a role as well. Stress, ageing, body weight, and alcohol intake have all been examined for their potential ties to estrogen balance.
  • An imbalance between beneficial and harmful bacteria in the gut may slow the liver’s usual elimination of estrogen from the body. A disrupted microbiome could influence hormone processing.
  • An overgrowth of problematic intestinal bacteria or a lack of helpful gut microbes may hinder how quickly the liver breaks down and excretes estrogen. Proper gut health supports overall endocrine function.
  • Some perfumes and fragrance scents contain chemicals that disrupt typical hormone signalling in studies. More research is still needed, but certain synthetic compounds may disrupt balances.

What are the Signs of High Estrogen?

Signs of High Estrogen in females


Now that we understand what causes high estrogen in women let’s explore how the body responds to it. Here are some symptoms of high estrogen:

  • Abdominal bloating
  • Swelling or formation of breast lumps
  • Increased breast tenderness
  • Irregular periods
  • Decreased or absent sexual desire
  • Anxiety, panic attacks, or mood swings
  • Intensified premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms
  • Fatigue, headaches, or tiredness
  • Weight gain

These signs illustrate what happens when estrogen levels are high in females. If you experience any of these symptoms, it’s wise to consult a doctor and undergo a check-up. Doctors typically recommend a blood test to assess estrogen levels in the body. There’s also a possibility of abnormally low estrogen levels, so it’s essential to get checked.

Diagnosing High Estrogen in Females

If your doctor suspects a hormonal imbalance, they’ll diagnose the cause from your symptoms and specific tests. If hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is causing your symptoms, they might suggest adjustments to your treatment plan.

How to Treat High Estrogen?

Treatment of high estrogen in females


Controlling estrogen dominance is crucial to prevent the medical complications mentioned earlier. Here are the most common treatments prescribed by doctors:

Lifestyle changes: 

Making lifestyle adjustments can effectively regulate estrogen levels in the body. Consider the following:

●      Reduce alcohol intake: Excessive alcohol consumption can hinder estrogen elimination, so it’s best to cut back.

●      Opt for healthy, nutritious foods: Eating fibre-rich foods and minimizing processed sugars aids in efficient estrogen breakdown by the liver. Avoiding high-fat meals can also be beneficial.

●      Manage stress: While avoiding stress entirely is challenging, learning to cope effectively can promote overall health. Minimizing unnecessary stress helps balance cortisol, estrogen, and progesterone levels.


If you’re taking medications for cancer or other conditions, inform your doctor. They can adjust your treatment plan if any medications elevate estrogen levels, especially if you have conditions like cancer that can worsen with high estrogen levels.


For females at high risk of ovarian or breast cancer, doctors may recommend oophorectomy, the surgical removal of both ovaries, to reduce estrogen production. Another option is ovarian radiation therapy, which halts ovarian function and estrogen production. These procedures do not increase cancer risk or spread.


Maintaining normal estrogen levels in both men and women is essential since this hormone controls multiple body functions. High estrogen levels may bring about a variety of symptoms such as weight gain, mood swings and abnormal menstrual cycles. The development of the factors, symptoms, and diagnosis of high estrogen must be a crucial step in the successful treatment. 

Lifestyle factors like limiting alcohol consumption and managing stress can help regulate estrogen levels, whereas medicines or surgical procedures may be required in certain cases. Prompt and comprehensive management of elevated estrogen levels will help to prevent the associated health conditions and guarantee good health. Frequent observation and engagement of healthcare professionals are central to the development of treatment plans specifically geared to suit each person’s needs.

What does Lupron do for IVF?

Medications are an integral part of the IVF treatment. Depending on the medical condition and other factors certain injections are administered to set the base for healthy development of the eggs. Lupron Injection is one such medication that is frequently administered before ovarian stimulation medications are given for a successful IVF treatment. 

Another drug, hCG or Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, is also widely used for egg maturation. But Lupron tops the list as it is better tolerated by the body. 

Lupron, lupride, or leuprolide acetate is a synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a). It is given to a woman at the start of the IVF treatment especially when there is a need to stimulate the ovaries to produce eggs in a controlled manner. Putting it simply, lupron helps control the development of eggs in the ovaries. 

Why is Lupron injection needed? 

Why is Lupron injection needed? 

To understand the need for Lupron injection we need to get down to the process of ovulation. 

  1. During menstruation, the hypothalamus which is a part of the brain releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone ie. GnRH. 
  2. This hormone sets the pituitary (another part of the brain) in motion to produce Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and the Follicle follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the blood.
  3. These two pituitary hormones awaken the ovary every month to produce an egg for fertilization, secrete estrogen, and ovulate. 

So, when Lupron is injected into the body regularly it mimics the structure of GnRH and triggers the production of pituitary hormones FSH and LH. 

Initially, the pituitary glands fail to recognize the difference between GnRH and lupron (GnRH-a). However, with the regular administration of lupron, the pituitary glands become alert to this foreign element. As a result, the pituitary glands cap the production of both FSH and LH. The secretion of these hormones keeps on reducing as long as lupron injections are administered. This condition is termed pituitary down-regulation. In simple terms, it can be stated that Lupron helps reduce the secretion of these hormones

But why is it important to control the secretion of these hormones during IVF? Aren’t these hormones important for conception? 

Lupron is administered to the woman to limit the secretion of certain hormones to prevent early or premature ovulation during IVF. This helps in the development of multiple mature eggs in the ovaries. As soon as this condition is achieved the ovaries and the reproductive system are ready to respond positively to other medications that are administered for a successful IVF cycle. Ultimately, fertility experts gain more control over the ovulation timing, the egg retrieval process, and the implantation timing.

After embryo transfer, lupron ensures a healthy environment for its development free from any hormonal fluctuations. Hence, increasing the chances of success of the IVF cycle.

That’s just one part of the story of Lupron. It also has other significant roles to play in an IVF cycle like:
  • Leuprolide acetate is also administered to stimulate the ovaries. 
  • Also, it can be used as a trigger to assist with the complete maturation of the eggs for IVF. This is referred to as Lupron Trigger.
  • As the ovaries are also responsible for the production of estrogen and progesterone, Lupron indirectly helps regulate their secretion.
  • Lupron also finds application in the treatment of endometriosis, prostate cancer, and large uterine fibroids.
  • It plays a vital role in treating CPP which is central precocious (early) puberty in children.

The Lupron Protocol during IVF 

It is generally given daily for 2-3 weeks before the process of ovarian stimulation begins. However, the duration depends on your medical reports and your body’s requirements. The Lupron medication kit generally contains 14 injections (for 2 weeks) and 2.8 ml of Lupron in the form of Leuprolide acetate. Typically fertility specialists administer Lupron in three phases which are stated below: 

Phase 1

This phase generally starts one week before the ovarian stimulation process. The Lupron administration process begins as soon as the natural ovulation is completed. 

Phase 2

The administration of Leuprolide acetate will carry on. But in phase 2 the fertility experts cut down on the dosage in comparison with phase 1. 

Phase 3

This phase sets in 36 hours before the egg retrieval process. The dosage is discontinued before the hCG trigger shot is administered for final egg maturation. 

After some days of regular Lupron shots, FSH injections will also become a part of the IVF journey. You will have blood tests and ultrasound to monitor the entire process. 

Lupron Injection Side Effects

Lupron Injection Side Effects

More than anything else, keeping your stress levels in check is the first step towards a successful IVF cycle. However, experiencing side effects at the start of your IVF journey can quickly switch on the panic button. So, it’s always better to know all the common side effects associated with a medication to stay calm during IVF. Lupron injection is accompanied by several short-term side effects mentioned below: 

  • Erratic mood swings
  • General body aches
  • Upset stomach
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Headache
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Hot flashes or night sweats
  • Edema
  • Weight gain
  • Body and face acne

The secretion of pituitary hormones is reduced to the same level as is witnessed during menopause (the time when a woman no longer has a monthly menstrual cycle). This means your body is pushed into a state of temporary menopause. So, you may have lighter or no periods during this phase. 

Other symptoms during the initial days include: 

  • Breast tenderness
  • Abnormal fluid retention
  • Joint pain
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Anxiety
  • Tingling
  • Itching or swelling at the injection site
  • Decreased libido

These symptoms vanish once Lupron usage is discontinued. 

In case, you suffer from excruciating pain or any other extreme side effect consult with your gynaecologist at the earliest. 

How is Lupron Injection Administered? 

Lupron injection is generally administered into the fatty tissue present just below the skin either in the form of daily injections or as monthly intramuscular depot injections using a small needle. It can be administered by the medical expert at your fertility clinic or you can also do it yourself at home by following the below-mentioned steps: 

  • Wash your hands thoroughly and properly sanitize the surface where you will lie down. 
  • Take a clean syringe and fill the Lupron medication into it. Always ensure that there is no air in the vial containing the medication.
  • Select a spot on the abdomen about two inches from your navel.
  • Hold the syringe at an angle of 45 degrees from the injection site.
  • Empty the contents of the syringe quickly.

Lupron injection can also be administered on the outer region of a woman’s thigh. As far as storage of Lupron injections is concerned, they generally don’t require refrigeration. However, it is for the best that you strictly follow your doctor’s guidelines. 

Imprimis IVF advises you to visit your fertility expert to get your Lupron injections. Once you feel confident enough go for self-administration. Do not miss out on any of the steps mentioned above every time you take your Lupron dose. 

Frequently Asked Questions 

Does Lupron increase IVF success

Well not directly. IVF success rates depend on a plethora of factors. Some of them include the age of the woman, the quality of both the egg and the sperm, medical history, genetic conditions, and the expertise of your fertility specialist. However, proper and timely administration of Lupron will lay a robust foundation for other medications that play a vital role in IVF success rates. 

Is Lupron always given during IVF? 

No. Even though it is one of the best options available when it comes to ovulation regulation, Lupron is not always given during IVF. Doctors have a variety of options available in the form of agonists and antagonists to choose from and reduce the production of FSH and LH. hCG or human Chorionic Gonadotropin is seen as an alternative to Lupron. However, Lupron is seen as the better option because it is more tolerable than the former. 

Final Word 

IVF is a complex and delicate procedure in all dimensions. Not only the technology but also the medications administered before the treatment starts need to suit the woman’s body and meet some requirements for the treatment to proceed smoothly. 

Lupron is one such medication that doesn’t directly affect the success rate of IVF but sets the base for the treatment to proceed efficiently and offer promising success rates.

If you have any queries regarding Lupron, other medications or anything related to IVF treatment feel free to visit us at Imprimis IVF, Srinagar.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an overstimulated reaction that often occurs in the ovaries of women who use injectable medications to increase hormone production. This problem leads to severe pain caused by inflammation of the ovaries.

Women undergoing IVF or ovulation stimulation by using injection medications may manifest this OHSS. This article will focus on better understanding what OHSS is, its causes, its symptoms, and how to treat it.

What is Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome?

OHSS, or Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, occurs when the ovaries swell and release fluid into the abdomen. This complication typically affects individuals undergoing fertility treatments that stimulate their ovaries to produce more eggs.

Usually, a woman who is menstruating only releases one egg monthly. Consequently, women who are going through fertility treatment might have to undergo hormone therapy for hyperovarian activity, especially during the egg retrieval process of IVF. Due to the ovaries’ hyper-response to those medications, it eventually leads to OHSS. This happens often with the medicines that are injected and activate the ovaries more frequently.

While OHSS used to be a common complication of IVF, new protocols have reduced its occurrence, although mild cases still arise occasionally.

OHSS is more prevalent in individuals undergoing fertility treatments who have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by hormonal imbalances. It’s also more common in those with a high egg supply.

Primary Causes of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

Causes of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

OHSS is primarily triggered by the hormone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which stimulates the ovaries. While ovaries typically release one egg, hormone treatments prompt them to produce multiple eggs simultaneously. During fertility treatments, individuals often receive an HCG “trigger” to help egg maturation before in vitro fertilization’s egg retrieval process. Excessive response to this medication can lead to OHSS.

In OHSS cases, fertility drugs cause blood vessels surrounding the ovaries to leak fluid. This fluid may enter the abdomen, resulting in symptoms like swelling and pain.

What are the Symptoms of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome?

Symptoms of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

Symptoms of OHSS typically appear within a week of using injectable ovulation-stimulating medications, although they may take longer to manifest. These symptoms vary in severity and can fluctuate over time.

OHSS presents in these categories, determined by symptom severity:

  • Mild (Grades 1–2): Characterized by abdominal distention and discomfort, nausea, and diarrhoea.
  • Moderate (Grade 3): Exhibits ultrasonographic evidence of ascites, excessive weight gain, increased abdominal girth, vomiting, and diarrhoea.
  • Severe (Grades 4–6): Shows clinical evidence of ascites, hydrothorax, and breathing difficulties.

Your healthcare provider assesses the type based on symptom severity. Most OHSS cases are mild, causing temporary discomfort. Severe instances are uncommon but can pose life-threatening risks.

If you’re undergoing fertility treatments and experience symptoms of OHSS, inform your healthcare provider. Even if your case of OHSS is mild, your provider will want to monitor you for sudden weight gain or worsening symptoms.

Diagnosis of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

If you are undergoing fertility treatment and notice symptoms that could indicate OHSS, it is important to contact your doctor promptly. They will want to examine you to determine if you are experiencing this condition. Some exams your doctor may perform to diagnose OHSS include:

  • Physical Tests:

During physical examination, doctors carefully check indicators like weight gain and belting. The daily scale measurement, the go-to step for diagnosis, will support the conclusion with the rate of weight gain. 

By doing so, it becomes apparent how far the severe swelling is going. Analysis of the sample results yields information that allows the doctors to reject or confirm the diagnosis that may be the reason for the observed changes.

  • Ultrasound:

Nowadays, doctors can use imaging equipment, like ultrasounds and X-rays, to find out whether there has been an accumulation of excess fluid inside the body. Patients with OHSS experience excessive water retention, which causes fluid to leak through their blood vessels into the abdominal cavity and the surrounding spaces, resulting in bloating and body aches. 

As the amount of fluid increases and starts leaking out of spaces where it was normally held, the symptoms of OHSS gradually worsen. Imaging tests give a doctor the chance to see how much the fluid is enlarging tissues and forcing someone to gain excessive weight.

  • Blood Tests:

Blood tests are often used together with ultrasounds for people undergoing fertility treatment. These medical exams analyze hormone levels, any abnormalities in the blood, and possible kidney problems caused by enlarged, leaking ovaries. If blood tests are part of your regular treatment, early identification of OHSS is more probable. Detecting OHSS sooner can help avoid serious issues. Blood tests measure several vital markers of hormone levels. 

Hormone levels indicate how ovaries react to medications designed to stimulate egg growth. Abnormalities in red or white blood cell counts may signal OHSS. Kidney function is also assessed since OHSS can lead to kidney strain if ovaries swell extensively. Together, ultrasounds and blood tests provide doctors with a fuller picture of ovarian health and response to treatment. This helps optimize care and reduce the risks of complications.

Treatment of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

Treatment of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

The treatment approach for OHSS depends on the severity of the condition. For mild cases, the primary focus is on ensuring proper fluid intake and monitoring symptoms for worsening.

Mild OHSS may commonly improve independently within around fourteen days. The care concentrates on relieving distress and forestalling issues. Here are some treatments to consider:

  • Keeping fluids and electrolytes in balance is crucial to avoid dehydration when the kidneys are damaged. Water or any other fluid intake of 1.5 to 2 litres daily is highly advisable to keep your kidneys in top condition and eliminate any unwanted toxins from your body. Consuming Gatorade or broth restores the right amount of fluids in your body. It is needed to get rid of the excess fluid in your body.
  • Adequate sleep plays a significant role in maintaining strong kidneys. To boost your daily activity, follow your doctor’s instructions and try walking, even if just short distances.
  • In case of headache or digestion problems, you can use any of the already existing pain relievers to feel more life-like.

Usually, hospitalization or major treatments are not required as long as the patients are stable or their symptoms do not become worse. Nevertheless, in severe cases, an OHSS might have to be hospitalized so that comprehensive medical care can be administered to avoid more serious complications arising. You can resolve these issues with immediate medical consultation.

Plausible and Feasible Treatments may include:

  • IV fluids may be administered to replenish fluids and important electrolytes lost through vomiting or diarrhoea.
  • If your abdomen has accumulated a sizable amount of fluid, doctors may drain it manually using a syringe, which can potentially provide comfort.
  • Other medication will be provided to reduce the activity in the ovary.


OHSS has become the most alarming problem for people with fertility treatments and those using injectable medications for the stimulation of egg production. Appreciating causes, signs, and therapy of OHSS is important as it relates to patients and healthcare providers.

Huge ovarian and abdominal swelling and fluid collection occur because of the over-reproduction of hormonal medications. The impact of that intensive may be mild discomfort or life-threatening complications. Prompt diagnosis using physical exams, ultrasounds, or blood tests is essential to enable the right course of treatment.

Treatment approaches are based on symptom alleviation, which could include fluid intake, adequate rest, pain relief, hospitalization, and intravenous fluid drainage of excess fluid when the case is severe. Close monitoring, communication, and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals mitigate negative outcomes and guarantee the best outcomes during fertility treatment.

Hydrosalpinx: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Hydrosalpinx happens when a fallopian tube gets blocked with fluid due to illness or injury. It can lead to abnormal discharge, pain, and trouble getting pregnant. The fallopian tubes are crucial for reproduction. They connect to the uterus and carry eggs from the ovaries. If an egg meets sperm in the tubes, conception can happen, and the fertilized egg travels to the uterus to implant.

Certain illnesses or injuries can cause fluid buildup at the end of a fallopian tube, resulting in hydrosalpinx. Hydrosalpinx can cause reproductive problems like infertility or ectopic pregnancy. This article covers the Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of hydrosalpinx.

What is Hydrosalpinx?

Hydrosalpinx is when fluid builds up in one or both fallopian tubes, causing a blockage. These tubes connect your uterus to your ovaries. Every month during your menstrual cycle, your ovaries release an egg that travels through these tubes. Healthy tubes provide a clear path for the egg and sperm to meet and fertilize. If fertilization happens, the embryo moves through the tubes to the uterus, where it can implant and grow into a fetus. With hydrosalpinx, the fluid blockage stops this process. A blocked tube can prevent sperm from reaching the egg. The blockage can stop the embryo from reaching the uterus even if fertilization occurs.

If one fallopian tube has hydrosalpinx, it’s often found in the other one too, known as bilateral hydrosalpinx. Hydrosalpinx can hinder fertility treatment. According to previous studies, if a woman with hydrosalpinx undergoes assisted reproductive technologies like IVF, the success rate is halved compared to those without it. That’s why women seeking IVF are often advised to have the hydrosalpinx removed beforehand.

Moreover, hydrosalpinx seems to affect pregnancy success if a woman conceives, whether naturally or through fertility treatment. Scientists suspect that hydrosalpinx may cause toxicity in embryos and eggs and affect the endometrium, leading to poor embryo implantation and growth.

What are the Causes of Hydrosalpinx?

Causes of Hydrosalpinx

Hydrosalpinx often develops from an untreated infection in the fallopian tubes. Various factors can cause such infections, including:

  • Untreated infections: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) like chlamydia and gonorrhoea can cause inflammation and scarring.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This infection can damage your fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs.
  • Pelvic surgery scars: Scar tissue from surgeries like C-sections or appendectomies can sometimes block the tubes.
  • Endometriosis: Tissue similar to the lining of your uterus can grow outside the uterus and block the tubes.
  • Pelvic adhesions: Severe scar tissue that binds organs together can also block the tubes.
  • Other infections: Sometimes, infections like appendicitis can spread and damage the fallopian tubes.
  • Injuries: Injuries to the pelvis can also damage the tubes.

Infections damage the delicate finger-like fimbria at the end of the fallopian tubes. Fimbria are crucial for transporting eggs to meet sperm and facilitating fertilization. When injured, fimbria fuse together, blocking the tubes. This blockage leads to fluid accumulation in the tubes, preventing their normal function.

What are the Symptoms of Hydrosalpinx?

Symptoms of Hydrosalpinx

While hydrosalpinx may not produce noticeable signs for some, others may only discover they have this condition when trying to conceive, which proves challenging. As hydrosalpinx often does not induce perceivable symptoms, many people are only alerted to its existence if they face problems starting a family.

However, for some individuals, symptoms such as unusual vaginal secretions and stomach or pelvic discomfort may arise, particularly worsening throughout menstruation. The discharge and soreness could intensify with the onset of menstrual flow.

Diagnosis of Hydrosalpinx

Blocked fallopian tubes are a common issue encountered during fertility evaluations. To find blockages in tubes, doctors may perform the hysterosalpingogram (HSG), a specialized x-ray imaging test. In the HSG procedure, contrast material is injected traditionally from the chin and upstairs in the uterine and fallopian tubes. Being open and uninjured, the tubes supply the contrast material, which will spread effectively. Nevertheless, suppose any part of the tube gets clogged or swollen in some areas. In that case, the contrast material in the images may not be clear enough, or the excessive contrast material may be trapped in a swollen area.

Having the capability to settle whether the blockage can be classified as hydrosalpinx, a sono hysterosalpingography checkout will receive no alternative but to be performed since it is indeed the advanced variant of a hysterosalpingogram. Moderate-sized amounts of saline solution with air are injected into the cervix and then driven to the uterus with a syringe.

Thus, the procedure goes on. Next, a transvaginal ultrasound gives information by scanning visually by sending sound waves to see the reproductive organs. The fallopian tubes and the uterus can be examined by the sonographer utilizing an ultrasound beam as the fluids are passed through the sterile materials. Any obstruction or abnormalities can be diagnosed by this method. This gives doctors the possibility to make the prognosis as to whether the right or left fallopian tube or both are affected by hydrosalpinx.

While ultrasound imaging can help identify a hydrosalpinx in some cases, it does not always enable detection of the fluid-filled fallopian tube. A medical research study discovered that ultrasound examinations could only visually confirm the presence of a hydrosalpinx in approximately one-third of patients affected. Laparoscopy can also serve as a useful diagnostic tool for hydrosalpinx. The procedure allows physicians to visually examine the fallopian tubes and surrounding pelvic region to determine if a hydrosalpinx is present. Any fluid-filled cysts or abnormalities affecting the tubes will be visible.

Treatment of Hydrosalpinx

Treatment of Hydrosalpinx

Treating hydrosalpinx can improve your chances of getting pregnant. Your treatment options depend on factors like your age and the severity of the blockage. Your doctor may prescribe medications to treat any remaining infections. Some surgical options may include the following:

  • Salpingectomy: Removal of one or both fallopian tubes.
  • Neo salpingostomy: Clearing the tubes of blockages. This is usually done through laparoscopy. During the procedure, your doctor makes a small incision in the fallopian tube to remove blockages and reopen the sealed ends.

Salpingostomy is less common now because it’s less successful in achieving pregnancy compared to IVF. Many people opt for IVF instead of fallopian tube surgery after hydrosalpinx treatment. Your doctor can advise you on the best option based on your situation.


Hydrosalpinx seems to be a massive threat to fertility and human reproduction. The cause for this ailment could be a result of different factors, including untreated infections, pelvic surgeries, or endometriosis, which characteristically interferes with the normal function of the fallopian tubes and thereby reduces the possibility of pregnancy and increases the risk for ectopic pregnancy.

Although the symptoms can be too subtle to notice, accurate diagnosis through hysterosalpingogram (HSG) ultrasound and sonohysterography (SHG). The procedures are crucial since these blockages can be found. The choice of treatment you use can be prescribed medicine or technical procedures such as salpingectomy or neo-salpingostomy, as they result in better fertility outcomes. Consequently, customized treatment plans based on cases that will be established to meet every patient’s requirements and conditions become indispensable in treating hydro supposedness correctly.

Choosing the Right IVF Clinic: Factors to Consider in Your Decision-Making

Choosing the Right IVF Clinic – It is wonderful to be able to give birth to any couple, but not everyone can conceive naturally. Those trying for a baby who is unable to conceive should approach an infertility specialist and evaluate fertility treatments, too.

It makes it difficult to select a suitable fertility clinic for IVF procedures. As more and more clinics appear all over the city, giving nearly identical promises, choosing the right clinic is challenging. Extensive research should be conducted to choose the ideal fertility clinic. To help you through this process, we have provided a list of some key qualities to find.

The Importance of Choosing the Right IVF Centre

In recent years, in vitro fertilization (IVF) has become increasingly popular as a fertility treatment option. With declining fertility rates among women, many couples in India are turning to IVF procedures to fulfil their dreams of starting a family when natural conception isn’t possible.

However, selecting the right IVF centre can be a big decision for couples hoping for success. Infertility is a significant global health concern, affecting around 8%–10% of couples worldwide. Everyone must have a good understanding of IVF specialists.

When choosing the best IVF centre, it’s essential to consider several key factors. That’s why we’ve put together a list of essential things to remember while selecting an ethical and suitable IVF centre for yourself.

Things to Consider While Choosing the Right IVF Centre

Things to Consider While Choosing the Right IVF Centre

1. Doctor’s Qualifications and Experience

When choosing an IVF fertilization clinic, you’ll want to consider the qualifications and experience of the doctors. Are they highly trained in infertility and reproduction?

IVF treatment might seem straightforward but often requires subtle adjustments for the best results. A good fertilization clinic will create a personalized treatment plan for each patient because everyone responds differently to medications. To avoid complications, closely monitoring each patient’s stimulation and egg retrieval process is crucial.

Booking an appointment and meeting the doctor with the best fertility centre can help determine if it’s the right clinic. A skilled infertility clinician will become apparent quickly.

2. Check Out the Success Rates of the Centre

The next thing to check when considering the best fertility centre is the success rate of their IVF procedure. Ask about the clinic’s track record with various cases, like unsuccessful previous IVF treatments, older couples, or those with existing medical conditions.

IVF success is influenced by factors such as age, the health of persons involved, response to treatment and lifestyle. At the same time, the rate with which a fertilization clinic has successfully handled situations informs you about their performance in helping different kinds of people attain good outcomes. Moreover, consider the clinic’s technology and equipment that will be equipped with their facilities — even in operating rooms and embryology labs. How staff members perform through the process can also affect IVF success rate.

3. Explore the Different Fertility Treatments Available

Fertility issues are different for everyone. So, when checking out reviews for a trustworthy fertilization clinic, ensure they provide a broad range of treatments to cater to diverse needs. Here are some types of fertility treatments:

  • Intrauterine Insemination: The IUI treatment process involves bypassing the cervix and putting sperm directly into the uterus.
  • In Vitro Fertilization: IVF is a complex procedure comprising fertilization of eggs and sperm outside the body while embryos are transferred to a uterus.
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: ICSI treatment is an advanced version of IVF in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg.
  • Egg Freezing: Preserving a woman’s egg cells for use in the future.
  • Donor Options: A good option for couples experiencing great infertility. An institution providing various therapies demonstrates that they are always patient-centred.
  • Pre-implantation genetic screening: The most modern treatment method will evaluate embryos for genetic disorders before implanting them in the uterus.

4. Technologies and Equipment 

Success in IVF depends greatly on the quality of a clinic’s equipment and technology. It’s not just about having the latest fancy gadgets – what matters is if they’re effective and suitable for your needs. While many of the best fertility centres boast about their state-of-the-art tech, it’s just as important to focus on their essential functions and the expertise of their staff.

The best IVF clinic should have Andrology, Genetics, and Embryology labs, all meeting international quality standards. They should also use top-of-the-line equipment like the Geri-Time-Lapse Incubator, which allows detailed monitoring of embryo development without disturbing them.

Technology plays a crucial role in IVF, especially in embryo culture. Embryos need to reach a certain stage before they can be transferred, and the right equipment helps ensure they get there safely.

Things to Consider before Choosing the Right IVF Centre

5. Choose the Right Location

When it comes to picking the best fertility centre, location is key. Since you’ll need to visit the specialist’s IVF clinic multiple times – this isn’t a one-day thing – it’s best to choose one close to you.

Picking a nearby IVF specialist means less travelling for appointments, which is a big plus. Plus, it might not be easy or practical to travel once pregnant. So, go for the IVF procedures with a professional closest to your home.

6. Transparency in IVF Clinic Costs

A good fertility clinic should be upfront about their procedures’ medical and financial aspects. Ensure they know the IVF treatment cost and whether counselling is part of the package before and after treatment. The price they quote at the beginning should be what you pay. 

It helps you budget and arrange funds if needed. They should also explain the procedures thoroughly so you can mentally and physically prepare. If there are any risks, they need to tell you about them, too. Confidentiality is crucial for patients, so ensure the clinic respects your privacy, whether you’re a donor or a patient.

7. Read the Reviews

Reading reviews from other patients helps you understand what it is like to get IVF procedures from that clinic. In some cases, if there are no referrals or testimonials in the clinic, you will normally find them on social media if you want to know people’s responses to their posts or how they comment about the treatments and services rendered on that clinic’s Facebook page. The best fertility centre would also narrate good case stories to the patients under them. You should make an effort to do some research.

Be aware that reviews are objective; hence, consider every factor. It is smart to view, feel, and judge the doctors and clinic through phone calls or personal encounters.


There you have it! Now, take your life’s most important decision with ease. Remember, when listing out the best IVF clinics, ensure you get all your queries answered by them, and only then move forward if satisfied.